phaedo full text

The state of sleep is opposed to the state of waking, and out of sleeping waking is generated, and out of waking, sleeping; and the process of generation is in the one case falling asleep, and in the other waking up. Then I will tell you, said Socrates. True. No other inference can be drawn from the previous statements. The reason is, that they are pure, and not, like our precious stones, infected or corroded by the corrupt briny elements which coagulate among us, and which breed foulness and disease both in earth and stones, as well as in animals and plants. And they were said to have vowed to Apollo at the time, that if they were saved they would send a yearly mission to Delos. True. For any man, who is not devoid of sense, must fear, if he has no knowledge and can give no account of the soul’s immortality. That is very true, he said. That is true. Yes, Socrates, I suppose that they will, I replied. None. True. And must we not allow, that when I or any one, looking at any object, observes that the thing which he sees aims at being some other thing, but falls short of, and cannot be, that other thing, but is inferior, he who makes this observation must have had a previous knowledge of that to which the other, although similar, was inferior? It may be said, indeed, that without bones and muscles and the other parts of the body I cannot execute my purposes. PHAEDO: That is true. And is this always the case? The soul of a philosopher will reason in quite another way; she will not ask philosophy to release her in order that when released she may deliver herself up again to the thraldom of pleasures and pains, doing a work only to be undone again, weaving instead of unweaving her Penelope’s web. Acces PDF Phaedo Plato Simmias, Cebes, Crito and an Attendant of the Prison. The double has another opposite, and is not strictly opposed to the odd, but nevertheless rejects the odd altogether. And we, Socrates, replied Simmias, shall be charmed to listen to you. The odd. And one of the two processes or generations is visible—for surely the act of dying is visible? Then raising the cup to his lips, quite readily and cheerfully he drank off the poison. Nor was I the first; for Crito, when he found himself unable to restrain his tears, had got up, and I followed; and at that moment, Apollodorus, who had been weeping all the time, broke out in a loud and passionate cry which made cowards of us all. Soon the jailer, who was the servant of the Eleven, entered and stood by him, saying:—To you, Socrates, whom I know to be the noblest and gentlest and best of all who ever came to this place, I will not impute the angry feelings of other men, who rage and swear at me, when, in obedience to the authorities, I bid them drink the poison—indeed, I am sure that you will not be angry with me; for others, as you are aware, and not I, are to blame. He added, laughing, I am speaking like a book, but I believe that what I am saying is true. This commentary is now available for $14.95 on Plato : PHAEDO. Very true. I think, he replied, that I have a much stronger faith, Socrates, in the first of the two, which has been fully demonstrated to me, than in the latter, which has not been demonstrated at all, but rests only on probable and plausible grounds; and is therefore believed by the many. And you must seek among yourselves too; for you will not find others better able to make the search. Are there not other things which have their own name, and yet are called odd, because, although not the same as oddness, they are never without oddness?—that is what I mean to ask—whether numbers such as the number three are not of the class of odd. And I thought that I had better have recourse to the world of mind and seek there the truth of existence. Read full-text ... R.M. And the difference between him and me at the present moment is merely this—that whereas he seeks to convince his hearers that what he says is true, I am rather seeking to convince myself; to convince my hearers is a secondary matter with me. Please then to do as I say, and not to refuse me. Phaedo. Now my objection is not the same as that of Simmias; for I am not disposed to deny that the soul is stronger and more lasting than the body, being of opinion that in all such respects the soul very far excels the body. May they not rather be described as almost always changing and hardly ever the same, either with themselves or with one another? Socrates replied: And have you, Cebes and Simmias, who are the disciples of Philolaus, never heard him speak of this? And are not the temperate exactly in the same case? Has the reality of them ever been perceived by you through the bodily organs? The Phaedo is one of Plato’s middle period dialogues and, as such, reveals much of Plato’s own philosophy. such a fact as that the growth of man is the result of eating and drinking; for when by the digestion of food flesh is added to flesh and bone to bone, and whenever there is an aggregation of congenial elements, the lesser bulk becomes larger and the small man great. 1. Is not this true, Cebes? Crito made a sign to the servant, who was standing by; and he went out, and having been absent for some time, returned with the jailer carrying the cup of poison. And the reason why the streams are always flowing in and out, is that the watery element has no bed or bottom, but is swinging and surging up and down, and the surrounding wind and air do the same; they follow the water up and down, hither and thither, over the earth—just as in the act of respiration the air is always in process of inhalation and exhalation;—and the wind swinging with the water in and out produces fearful and irresistible blasts: when the waters retire with a rush into the lower parts of the earth, as they are called, they flow through the earth in those regions, and fill them up like water raised by a pump, and then when they leave those regions and rush back hither, they again fill the hollows here, and when these are filled, flow through subterranean channels and find their way to their several places, forming seas, and lakes, and rivers, and springs. Several minor variants of Jowett’s translation may also be found on the Internet. I think, Socrates, that, in the opinion of every one who follows the argument, the soul will be infinitely more like the unchangeable—even the most stupid person will not deny that. From the senses then is derived the knowledge that all sensible things aim at an absolute equality of which they fall short? The tale, my friend, he said, is as follows:—In the first place, the earth, when looked at from above, is in appearance streaked like one of those balls which have leather coverings in twelve pieces, and is decked with various colours, of which the colours used by painters on earth are in a manner samples. Then the inference is that our souls exist in the world below? For at this moment I am sensible that I have not the temper of a philosopher; like the vulgar, I am only a partisan. And now, as you bid me, I will venture to question you, and then I shall not have to reproach myself hereafter with not having said at the time what I think. Endless, indeed, replied Simmias. You must have observed this trait of character? Misanthropy arises out of the too great confidence of inexperience;—you trust a man and think him altogether true and sound and faithful, and then in a little while he turns out to be false and knavish; and then another and another, and when this has happened several times to a man, especially when it happens among those whom he deems to be his own most trusted and familiar friends, and he has often quarreled with them, he at last hates all men, and believes that no one has any good in him at all. I speak as I do because I want you to agree with me in thinking, not only that absolute greatness will never be great and also small, but that greatness in us or in the concrete will never admit the small or admit of being exceeded: instead of this, one of two things will happen, either the greater will fly or retire before the opposite, which is the less, or at the approach of the less has already ceased to exist; but will not, if allowing or admitting of smallness, be changed by that; even as I, having received and admitted smallness when compared with Simmias, remain just as I was, and am the same small person. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes Phaedo Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. Nationality: Ancient Greece Ex. Yes. %PDF-1.7 Then all but the philosophers are courageous only from fear, and because they are afraid; and yet that a man should be courageous from fear, and because he is a coward, is surely a strange thing. Would that they could, Socrates, but I rather fear that to-morrow, at this time, there will no longer be any one alive who is able to give an account of them such as ought to be given. I knew quite well what you would say, replied Crito; but I was obliged to satisfy him. Simmias said: What a message for such a man! And the danger of neglecting her from this point of view does indeed appear to be awful. And therefore Simmias is said to be great, and is also said to be small, because he is in a mean between them, exceeding the smallness of the one by his greatness, and allowing the greatness of the other to exceed his smallness. Phaedo : Plato : 9780199538935 We use cookies to give you the best possible experience. For what could be more convincing than the argument of Socrates, which has now fallen into discredit? Very true, he said. Now I will ask you to consider whether the objection, which, like Simmias, I will express in a figure, is of any weight. Then three has no part in the even? And first of all let me be sure that I have in my mind what you were saying. Persons of the dialogue: Phaedo - Echecrates Of Phlius - Socrates - Apollodorus - Simmias - Cebes - Crito - attendant of the prison Indeed, I do not. Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Echecrates of Phlius meets Phaedo of Elis, a follower of Socrates, at Phlius, a remote village on the Peloponnese. Nor again will parts in the ratio 3:2, nor any fraction in which there is a half, nor again in which there is a third, admit the notion of the whole, although they are not opposed to the whole: You will agree? and are we convinced that all of them are generated out of opposites? Certainly— Plato – Phaedo (Full Text) | Genius The Phaedo That follows necessarily, Socrates. And what about the pleasures of love—should he care for them? For example, when the body is hot and thirsty, does not the soul incline us against drinking? And whether the soul enters into the body once only or many times, does not, as you say, make any difference in the fears of individuals. True. Yes, said Cebes; with such natures, beyond question. These hopes I would not have sold for a large sum of money, and I seized the books and read them as fast as I could in my eagerness to know the better and the worse. - Full View | HathiTrust Digital Library | HathiTrust Digital Library.          Lingering, and sitting by a new made grave, There is temperance again, which even by the vulgar is supposed to consist in the control and regulation of the passions, and in the sense of superiority to them—is not temperance a virtue belonging to those only who despise the body, and who pass their lives in philosophy? And that principle which repels the musical, or the just? And we recognize also that this absolute equality has only been known, and can only be known, through the medium of sight or touch, or of some other of the senses, which are all alike in this respect? Quite true. Yet the exchange of one fear or pleasure or pain for another fear or pleasure or pain, and of the greater for the less, as if they were coins, is not the exchange of virtue. ‘Have we not found,’ they will say, ‘a path of thought which seems to bring us and our argument to the conclusion, that while we are in the body, and while the soul is infected with the evils of the body, our desire will not be satisfied?

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