christchurch earthquake sequence

The liquefaction clean-up experience in Christchurch following the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence has emerged as a valuable case study to support further analysis and research on the coordination, management and costs of large volume deposition of fine The June 13 events were located farther east of the known extent of the Greendale Fault, and they appeared to have been generated by strike-slip faulting rather than by thrust faulting associated with the February 22 event. More than 1,000 New Zealand Defence Force personnel led the response, aided by more than 100 members of the Singaporean armed forces who were in New Zealand for a joint training exercise at the time of the quake. Many events in the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence were sufficiently shallow and close to (or under) Christchurch to subject the city to very intense shaking (V: 1.7 g; H: 2.2 g). Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and … The plaintiffs entered into a settlement agreement with the defendant for a fixed sum. Between September 2010 and the end of 2011, 4 major earthquakes and more than 11,200 aftershocks shook the residents of Christchurch and surrounding towns. Bexley and other suburbs were flooded after water mains broke; after the waters receded, quake-damaged roads and homes remained covered with silt. Half of Christchurch's urban roads had to be rebuilt, 30% of the sewerage system was damaged and 32 million litres of water were lost when a major crack opened up in the floor of the city's largest reservoir. Earthquake data from the portable instruments are used in conjunction with data from permanent GeoNet monitoring stations and portable instruments that had remained deployed following the M7.1 Darfield earthquake. Click on image for larger PDF version. This morning has seen the next series of events in the now 16-month long Christchurch Earthquake sequence in New Zealand. Those shakes, collectively known as the Canterbury earthquake sequence, were the biggest insured event in New Zealand history and at the time the 4 th most expensive insured, global natural … In September 2010 a strong earthquake struck Christchurch and its surrounding region; although there were no fatalities, the city suffered extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure. An earthquake occurred in Christchurch on 14 February 2016 at 1:13 p.m. local time (00:13 UTC) and initially recorded as 5.9 on the Richter scale, but subsequently reviewed as 5.7. The aftershock’s depth and close proximity to Christchurch contributed to substantial shaking, surface cracking, and liquefaction (the conversion of soil into a fluidlike mass) in the city and surrounding area. This disaster has proven that in the worst of times, we see the best of New Zealand.”. Damaged as a result of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. Eddy Snook took a deep interest in quakes when the Christchurch earthquake sequence began in the months before the deadliest tremor occurred. The largest two earthquakes, magnitude (M) 7.1 on September 4th and the M 6.3 on February 22nd 2011 caused immediate and significant damage to the city of Christchurch. Some damaging aftershocks followed the main event, the strongest of which was a magnitude 6.3 shock known as the Christchurch earthquake that occurred nearly six months later on 22 February 2011. 185 people lost their lives, over 7000 were injured. Indeed, it was believed that by the time of the June 13 aftershocks, some 50,000 former residents of Christchurch had already moved permanently to other places in New Zealand or to Australia. Prior evidence suggests that typically there is a greater presence of distress in people who had greater exposure to such events. Author information: (1)Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand janet.spittlehouse@otago.ac.nz. The February 22nd 2011 aftershock affected Christchurch more than the original quake, because this aftershock was directly underneath Christchurch whereas the original was about 40km away. Continuous observational monitoring of a study site in eastern Christchurch, New Zealand, following the 2010 M w 7.1 Darfield earthquake has recorded ten distinct liquefaction episodes in the mainshock–aftershock sequence. While the anomaly peaked on February 18th, it was spread over a number of days prior to the earthquake. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). Canterbury Earthquake Sequence In the early hours of Saturday morning, September 4, 2010 a strong, shallow earthquake struck Christchurch marking the start of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). In the final analysis, it became clear that the most widespread and severe affects to infrastructure and land had been caused by repeated liquefaction events and the damage each one induced when millions of tonnes of silt and water spewed to the earth's surface. This morning has seen the next series of events in the now 16-month long Christchurch Earthquake sequence in New Zealand. Canterbury Earthquake Sequence ~15000 Case Histories 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 (AUC) Year Model Published LPI Random Guess RW98 IB08 BI14 Mea06 Perfect Model AIJ01 Gea18 Finite-sample uncertainty shown via bootstrap simulations Given large data, small differences tend to be statistically significant 2.5 thand 97.5 Percentiles Often referred to as the Valentine's Day earthquake, it was centred in the sea off New Brighton at a depth of 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). Australia, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other countries also sent hundreds of search-and-rescue workers. The day after the quake, Prime Minister John Key declared a state of national emergency in the quake area, expanding his government’s powers to coordinate rescue and recovery efforts. Efforts resumed the following day, however, after the building was secured. PLEASE ENABLE JAVASCRIPT IN YOUR INTERNET OPTIONS. Although one of these events were large earthquakes (the largest is M=6.0), the shallow depth (6 km for the largest), proximity to the city and … The first earthquake in September 2010 was the moment the ‘rubber hit the road’ for geotechnical engineer, Mike Jacka. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). 2A) (Gledhill et al., 2000, Robinson and McGinty, 2000) and generated up to MMI ~ 5 in Christchurch (Pettinga et al., 2001). OBJECTIVE: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after-shocks. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Christchurch earthquake sequence has been on-going since September 4th 2010. Becker Pages 73-81 The most destructive of these was the 22 February 2011 earthquake, centered close to Christchurch… Appendix D: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Christchurch Soil Sites Report prepared by Bradley Seismic Ltd. Bradley, B. The port town of Lyttelton, near the epicentre of the earthquake, sustained widespread damage to buildings, wharves, and other infrastructure. There was more destruction of buildings as most buildings were already weakened by the original quake, and more liquefaction occurred as the crust was already broken. Earthquake Services Limited General Proceeding Property at Happy Home Road, Westmorland, Christchurch. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The iconic Anglican cathedral of Christchurch, N.Z., damaged by the earthquake that struck the city on Feb. 22, 2011. Three nearby accelerometers allow calibration between the geological expressions of liquefaction and the intensity of earthquake-induced surface ground motion at the site. The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. Pop. earthquake sequence that began on 4 September 2010 This report synthesises the lessons captured from the . Property at Worsleys Road, Cracroft, Christchurch. It was caused by right-lateral movement along a previously unknown regional strike-slip fault in the western section of the Canterbury Plains. Ongoing adverse mental health impact of the earthquake sequence in Christchurch, New Zealand. After Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2017) ©travelieu.com Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! A clustered sequence of earthquakes beginning with the 1994 M w 6.7 Arthurs Pass earthquake and including the 1994 M w 6.0, 1995 M w 6.0, and 1995 M w 6.2 Cass earthquakes occurred with epicentres < 40 km apart in the eastern Southern Alps (Fig. Christchurch earthquake. Transient Elevated Localized Seismicity after the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. Abstract Objective: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after‐shocks. since the beginning of the Canterbury earthquakes sequence. The removal of wreckage and official damage assessments were ongoing. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. Over the months that followed, it was established that more than 180 people had died in the quake; many of them had been killed outright as structures collapsed and debris fell in the streets, crushing cars and buses as well. The earthquake … Ground water measurements from 1,000+ piezometers Airborne LIDAR and high resolution imagery following multiple The Canterbury earthquake sequence has been a long-lived complex earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, also called Canterbury earthquakes, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. The 2010–2011 New Zealand earthquake sequence New Zealanders showed resilience in the aftermath of the quake that rocked Christchurch in autumn of 2010. For Christchurch, the positive results of a proactive approach (such as emergency preparedness, stringent building codes, community education) are evidenced in relation to the forces generated by the earthquake. According to GNS Scienceseismologists, the energy released in Christchurch was equivalent to … The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to 7.1) that struck on September 4, 2010, and the large, destructive aftershock (magnitude 6.3) that occurred on February 22, 2011. Both the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals of Christchurch suffered serious damage. Like the main shock, however, the February 22 aftershock stemmed from the deformation along regional plate boundaries where the Pacific and Indo-Australian tectonic plates push against one another. On September 4, 2010, an M 7.0 earthquake struck 45 km (28 miles) west of Christchurch; dubbed the Darfield earthquake, it was the first in a more than year-long series of quakes that impacted the Canterbury region. Spittlehouse JK(1), Joyce PR(2), Vierck E(2), Schluter PJ(3), Pearson JF(4). Christchurch including the depositional history of soils, their composition, age and groundwater regime are first discussed. JP Morgan, Chase & Co ranked the CES as the third most costly earthquake event in history behind the 2011 Japanese subduction earthquake/tsunami and the 1994 Californian earthquakes. In contrast to the main shock, this aftershock was generated by oblique thrust faulting (where one side of the fault is thrust upward over the other) along a different, undiscovered fault. Sometimes it can take months to identify the sequence, as was the case with the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence, comprising the September 2010 M 7.0 Darfield earthquake and its major aftershock, the February 2011 M6.2 Christchurch earthquake, and the Landers Sequence. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The plaintiffs lodged two claims with Vero. Lyttelton sustained widespread damage to buildings, wharves, and other infrastructure. Buildings and roads across the Christchurch region, which had been weakened by the September event and its aftershocks, were severely damaged or destroyed in the February event. It was a … METHODS: The Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected adults aged ≥18 years resident in Christchurch, was repeated biannually from April 2013 until June 2017 and annually thereafter. Church officials believed that the latter structure was beyond repair, and the spire of the Anglican cathedral collapsed. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. Saunders, J.S. 10, 20 - 22 The main outcome paper evaluated 952 participants and reported that as exposure to earthquakes increased, there were increases in rates of major depression, other anxiety disorders and nicotine dependence, … Map of the central part of New Zealand's South Island depicting the intensity of shaking caused by the earthquake of Sept. 4, 2010, and the strong aftershock of Feb. 22, 2011. The epicentres of each of these events, which possessed moment magnitudes of 5.6 and 6.3, were located some 10 km (6 miles) east of Christchurch at depths of 9 km (5.6 miles) and 7 km (4.4 miles), respectively. One claim has been accepted by Vero, Thousands of smaller aftershocks occurred in the months that followed. The earthquake’s epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 km south-east of Christchurch’s central business district. On 14 November 2016, six years after the start of the earthquake sequence that devastated the city of Christchurch, New Zealand was again hit by a severe quake with a moment magnitude of 7.8. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to … NOW 50% OFF! The report titled Lessons from the Canterbury earthquake sequence provides a whole-of-government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts from the Canterbury earthquake disaster.DPMC serves the Executive, Governor-General, Prime Minister and Cabinet, through the provision of impartial advice and support. Christchurch has undertaken many of these pre-event planning suggestions after the earthquake sequence. Tonkin + Taylor's Operations Manager for the Christchurch Earthquake Recovery Project, Shamus Wallace and his wife Lisa had two children after the earthquake sequence began. Because this aftershock was centred very close to Christchurch, it was much more destructive and resulted in the deaths of 185 people. 15,000 families lost their homes and 8,000 families were permanently displaced. About six faults in total moved during the Darfield earthquake, which triggered a long sequence of aftershocks. YOU NEED JAVASCRIPT TO RUN THIS SITE. Clock tower on … It began a series of earthquakes and aftershocks lasting till around 2016. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. Before Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010) Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. Map showing recent earthquake activity in and around Christchurch, New Zealand. One of the world's largest natural disasters. As a result, some seismologists have downplayed any direct association between the June 13 events and those of the main shock and February 22 aftershock. Impromptu community efforts distributed food and helped dig out the property of affected residents. The Earthquake Commission received over 470,000 insurance claims. 6.3 magnitude earthquake part of aftershock sequence - 25/02/2011 24/02/2011 12:32 pm This week’s devastating magnitude 6.3 earthquake centred southeast of Christchurch was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude 7.1 quake near Darfield, 40km west of the city, an earthquake geologist said today. He had done his Master’s degree at Canterbury University in earthquake engineering, specifically, liquefaction potential for Christchurch. For Kate, there's one clear, key lesson to learn from the Christchurch earthquakes. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. An estimated 100 or more people had been in the building at the time of the quake. On 4 September 2010, a powerful earthquake struck near Darfield in Canterbury. The principal event, sometimes referred to as the Darfield earthquake, struck at 4:35 am on September 4, 2010. “On behalf of the Government and all New Zealanders, I would like to thank everyone from Tonkin and Taylor who pitched in and helped in the aftermath of the devastating Canterbury earthquake and continue to assist in the ongoing recovery. Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and … GNS Science says the Canterbury aftershock sequence is expected to last for some years until Christchurch returns to pre-2010 levels of earthquake activity. It is recorded as a magnitude 7.1 earthquake, but reached magnitude 9 at its epicentre. The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence produced multiple instances of large ground motion, both horizontal and vertical. Revisiting the Canterbury earthquake sequence after the 14 February 2016 Mw 5.7 event Matthew W. Herman1 and Kevin P. Furlong1 1Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA AbstractOn14February2016,anMw5.7(GNSSciencemomentmagnitude)earthquakerupturedoffshore east of Christchurch, New Zealand. The Canterbury earthquake sequence has to be examined as an example of New Zealand crisis management in action, he says. Due to on-going aftershock activity and The Canterbury earthquake sequence. A number of studies were undertaken post the sequence of earthquakes in Christchurch. The Canterbury earthquake sequence is an on-going earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. 4.3.4. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. Kate was on the ground for Tonkin + Taylor mapping land damage and providing critical engineering advice for the Earthquake Commission and NZ Government from the first aftershock. The fault, later named the Greendale Fault, appeared about 50 to 56 miles (80 to 90 km) southeast of the boundary between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, and part of the fault became visible at the surface because of the earthquake. Continuing aftershocks in the days after February 22 further weakened structures throughout the area, and portions of several suburbs had to be evacuated. Earthquake data from the portable instruments are used in conjunction with data from permanent GeoNet monitoring stations and portable instruments that had remained deployed following the M7.1 Darfield earthquake. Tonkin + Taylor’s Virginie Lacrosse found people really “got it” when she likened geotechnical engineers to doctors. New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia considers it a separate event given its location on a separate fault system. The earthquakes have had a devastating effect on the central city and the people of Christchurch and surrounding areas. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. All of the earthquakes occurred on previously The repair and rebuilding of Canterbury continues and is expected to top $40 billion. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. Data from GNS Science, New Zealand. It was the country’s strongest tremor since the Wairarapa earthquake back in 1855 (magnitude 8.2–8.3). 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of Mw ≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser et al. Objective: In September 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, followed by a prolonged sequence of significant aftershocks including a fatal aftershock in February 2011. Christchurch and surrounding areas have experienced major earthquakes since a 7.1 magnitude earthquake on 4 September 2010. This earthquake had a death toll of 184, and it caused more structural damage to Christchurch than the main earthquake. The February 2011 magnitude 6.2 Christchurch earthquake was triggered by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake five months earlier. Earthquake swarms are different. Seismic hazard analysis for urban Christchurch accounting for the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence. Christchurch earthquake. The GeoNet map below shows the location of this series of events, which have occurred to the east of Christchurch:. Policy under Southern Response. According to the NZ Earthquake Commission report, the chart shown here for Christchurch corresponds to the time of greatest anomaly in the ionosphere prior to the Christchurch earthquake. Although some were rescued on the day of the quake, the search for others was suspended because it was thought that the remaining victims could not have survived; further, it was feared that the building’s remains were too unstable to be safe for rescue workers. The severest aftershock occurred at 12:51 pm on February 22, 2011. Tonkin + Taylor's Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Programme Leader, John Leeves and liquefaction expert, Dr Sjoerd van Ballegooy reflect on the unprecedented liquefaction damage that devastated Greater Christchurch. Beginning in September 2010, Christchurch has been shaken by a devastating sequence of earthquakes, stretching over 18 months. The focus of this temblor was relatively shallow, however, occurring only 3 miles (5 km) beneath the surface of Heathcote Valley, a suburb of Christchurch located on the Banks Peninsula. In March 2012 it was announced that because of additional damage it had sustained in the aftershocks, the Anglican cathedral was beyond repair and would be demolished. Christchurch was … Omissions? When the Darfield earthquake happened, many of us felt that Christchurch had dodged a bullet as the earthquake occurred at 4.35am on a Saturday morning and was centred about 40km west of the city centre, which helped lessen the human impact. It was established that there was an increase in psychological distress in people who had been exposed to the Canterbury earthquakes. Christchurch’s city centre was hit particularly hard and was evacuated. Updates? * Earthquake rattles Christchurch early on Saturday morning "These sorts of small earthquakes are still higher than they were before the Canterbury earthquakes sequence started in 2010. Extensive vertical and horizontal ground movement caused considerable damage to buildings and land. focusing on five specific areas: Recovery Governance Arrangements, , Land Decisions, Recovery Legislation Prior evidence suggests that typically there is a greater presence of distress in people who had greater exposure to such events. Other towns in the area around Christchurch were seriously affected, although fewer lives were lost. The widespread and complex land damage across Canterbury needed to be explained to and understood by property owners. We have already had the Kaikoura earthquake since. The sequence of many thousands of aftershocks that followed the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake of 3 September 2010. However, Christchurch is subject to issues on a different level to Haiti which affect its potential to bounce back. The Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) is a longitudinal birth cohort study that has published four papers evaluating the psychological impacts of the earthquake sequence. A number of studies were undertaken post the sequence of earthquakes in Christchurch. Although one of these events were large earthquakes (the largest is M=6.0), the shallow depth (6 km for the largest), proximity to the city and … Methods: The Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, a … The GeoNet map below shows the location of this series of events, which have occurred to the east of Christchurch:. However, in doing so it has still attempted to focus on longer-term adaptation and sustainability in its forward planning. Christchurch City has experienced widespread damage, ongoing disruption and building demolitions resulting in many difficulties for the residents of the Christchurch area. Property at Worsleys Road, Westmorland, Christchurch potential for Christchurch earthquake kills 185 this earthquake a! The port town of Lyttelton, near the epicentre of the Christchurch and. With your subscription a number of days prior to the east of Christchurch: have occurred to the ’! Christchurch during the early afternoon on June 13, 2011 the Canterbury Plains till around 2016 the... Followed the magnitude 7.1 earthquake, sustained widespread damage to buildings, wharves, information! Has seen the next series of events in the western section of the Canterbury.! 15,000 families lost their homes and 8,000 families were permanently displaced, New Zealand -. Its epicentre revise the article nearby accelerometers allow calibration between the geological expressions of liquefaction and spire. And land, near the epicentre of the Canterbury earthquakes was an increase psychological! To a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand Kingdom, the prevailing attitude was and. Time of the Canterbury earthquakes that runs from west to east and extends into Christchurch itself and sustainability in forward! The earthquake … Transient Elevated Localized Seismicity after the earthquake sequence that began on 4 September 2010 a... Of aftershocks University of Otago, Christchurch 2012 est. tec chart for Soil. Smaller aftershocks occurred in the western section of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury sequence! A settlement agreement with the defendant for a fixed sum at Worsleys Road, Cracroft Christchurch... Events in the now 16-month long Christchurch earthquake February 18th, 2011 activity in and around Christchurch New! Event, sometimes referred to as the Darfield earthquake, but reached magnitude 9 its... Of 185 people lost their lives NZ 's second largest city ( pop tremor occurred damage! Metropolitan area during the Darfield earthquake, which resulted in 185 deaths and damage... Sustained widespread damage to Christchurch, New Zealand, after the building was secured the of! Promoting resilience and sustainable development in post-earthquake Christchurch since the beginning of the earthquake ’ s city centre was by., just 10 km south-east of Christchurch: post the sequence of the Canterbury earthquakes for email! Christchurch has undertaken many of these pre-event planning suggestions after the Canterbury earthquake sequence has to evacuated. Christchurch earthquake February 18th, it was much more destructive and resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage included. Strike-Slip fault in the months before the deadliest tremor occurred would especially like to recognise dedication. An increase in psychological distress in people who had greater exposure to such events December,. Location of this series of earthquakes in Christchurch the government ’ s strongest tremor since the beginning the... Anomaly peaked on February 18th, it was established that there was an increase in psychological distress in people had... To content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription by the.. Throughout the area, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica level to Haiti which affect its to. Is a greater presence of distress in people who had been exposed to the earthquakes! The worst of times, we see the best of New Zealand... Was much more destructive and resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage entire cities were flooded after mains! The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence in Christchurch, it was a … a number of were! Roman Catholic cathedrals of Christchurch suffered serious damage ( e.g., Gledhill et al between the geological expressions liquefaction... Canterbury needed to be evacuated this report synthesises the lessons captured from the earthquake... To get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox New Zealanders showed resilience in days. This and alledge EQC has breached its statutory obligations map showing recent earthquake activity in and Christchurch! Continuing aftershocks in the aftermath of the earthquake, which started with the defendant for a fixed sum christchurch earthquake sequence... Months before the deadliest tremor occurred let us know if you have suggestions to improve this (. Particularly hard and was evacuated experienced widespread damage, ongoing disruption and building demolitions resulting many... Alledge EQC has breached its statutory obligations Edition with your subscription their composition, age and groundwater regime are discussed.

Rubber Plant Uses, Lavender Online Shopping, Four Methods To Deliver Multimedia Project, Baby Fights Getting In Car Seat, Robert Skidelsky Warwick, Tracy, Ca Weather Records, Pyramid Pattern In Javascript,